GLOSSARY OF TERMS
POWDER COATING VS SPI
"0" Fire and Smoke Spread Rating Coatings meeting these testing standards will not add to the spread of a flame. At extreme temperatures, they will begin to burn, but will stop when the heat source is removed.
Airless Sprayer A coating sprayer using high-pressure to force a liquid through a nozzle and onto a surface. Spraying provides the most even and consistent surface.
Base and Curing Agent Some coatings require the mixing of two chemicals (a base and a curing agent) to initiate the curing process. All epoxies and some polyurethanes are of this type.
Batt Insulation Includes fiberglass and mineral wool fibre, this is a type of insulation that comes in 'blankets' that are relatively simple to install and provide some R-value.
Ceramic-Based A coating using ceramics as a base material to give certain properties, such as reflectivity and heat blockage.
Chalking Unless UV controlled, many coatings will lose gloss and begin to ‘chalk’ in sunlight. Chalking is the formation of a powder on the surface of a paint film caused by disintegration of the binder during weathering. Epoxy coatings are particularly prone to chalking and must be over-coated, if used outdoors, with a UV controlled coating
Class A Fire Coating Coatings meeting these testing standards will not add to the spread of a flame. At extreme temperatures, they will begin to burn, but will stop when the heat source is removed.
Class A Fire Rating Coatings meeting these testing standards will not add to the spread of a flame. At extreme temperatures, they will begin to burn, but will stop when the heat source is removed.
Condensation Condensation is the accumulation of water on surfaces as a result of temperature differences between the surface and the surrounding air. It is a factor of the temperature difference and the percentage of humidity in the air.
Crosshatch Method A method of spraying on coatings that involves one pass horizontally and then a second pass vertically over the same surface area to ensure complete coverage.
Curing Agent Some coatings require the mixing of two chemicals (a base and a curing agent) to initiate the curing process. All epoxies and some polyurethanes are of this type.
Dew Point The temperature at which air must be cooled to reach saturation and begin to condense. As a surface cools, warm moist air is chilled and water vapour in the air condenses into droplets. The greater the difference between the surface temperature and the dew point, the drier is the air.
Elastomeric The elastic, rubber-like properties of a material that will stretch when pulled and will return relatively quickly to its original shape when released.
Emulsifying To form a suspension of very finely divided oily or resinous liquid in another (watery) liquid.
Enamel A paint that dries to a hard glossy finish. Technically, enamel is a colored varnish or high-gloss paint. Generally, the term is used for high quality, dirt-resistant paints that may have a sheen level from satin to glossy. These coatings are usually used for more demanding applications.
Epoxy A synthetic resin that cures or hardens by chemical reaction between components which are mixed together shortly before use. Epoxy coatings are extremely tough, durable and highly resistant to chemicals, abrasion, moisture and alcohol.
Film Thickness Thickness is usually measured in mils, microns, or millimeters. One mils = one thousand of an inch. The metric equivalent is a micron. One micron = one thousand of a millimeter.
500 mils = ½ of an inch
500 microns = ½ of a millimetre
40 mils = 1 mm
A business card is usually 8-10 mils thick
Hopper Gun Usually air assisted, it is a spray machine used for textured coatings.
Infrared (IR) Light that is so red humans cannot see it. The long wave, electromagnetic radiation of radiant heat emitted by all hot objects. On the electromagnetic spectrum, it can be found between microwave radiation and visible light.
Insulation Equivalent Insulation Equivalent is a system developed to account for all three methods of heat transfer, especially with regard to reflective coatings. The Insulation Equivalent is simply a measure of how well a conventional insulation resists heat transfer through conduction only. The greater the value, the greater the ability of the insulation to resist and absorb conductive heat transfer. The Insulation Equivalent measures the value of a conventional insulation material (i.e. fibreglass or polyurethane foam). The Insulation Equivalent does not consider moisture absorption or air movement.
Intumiscent Coatings designed to expand and swell when contacted with flames, giving a greater volume and area to absorb heat and repel flames.
Latex A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber or plastic obtained by polymerization and used especially in coatings and adhesives. Generally non-toxic and easy to clean up
Metallic-Based A coating using metallics as a base material to give certain properties such as strength, longevity, and flexibility.
Micron and Mils Thickness Thickness is usually measured in mils. One mil = one thousand of an inch. The metric equivalent is a micron. One micron = one thousand of a millimeter.
500 mils = ½ of an inch
500 microns = ½ of a millimetre
40 mils = 1 mm
A business card is usually 8-10 mils thick
Moisture-Cure Coatings that use moisture from the air to maintain the curing process.
Polyurethane Broad class of polymers noted for excellent abrasion and solvent resistance. Can be in solid or cellular form (formed/expanded). Often used as a chemical linkage in finishes, plastic parts and flexible parts. Polyurethane paints are known for their durability.
Polyurethane Foam A type of polyurethane that exists in cellular form. Commonly used as insulation in a sprayed-on or solid panel form.
Pot Life The time after which a two-part (or greater) coating can be applied to a surface, before enough of the chemical curing has occurred to compromise adhesion.
Pot Sprayer An air-assisted hand sprayer using a small container or 'pot' to contain the coating to be applied.
Reefer A refrigerated trailer.
R-Value The R-value is simply a measure of how well traditional insulation resists heat transfer through conduction only. The greater the value, the greater the ability of the insulation to resist and absorb conductive heat. The R-value does not consider moisture absorption or air movement.
Resin Any of a class of solid or semi-solid organic products of natural or synthetic origin, generally of high molecular weight with no definite melting point. The material that forms a hard film on the surface after the chemicals have evaporated. Acrylics and urethanes are the common resins used in water-base finishes.
Saponification A chemical decomposition of a paint's binder from a substrate, by alkali and moisture (e.g., new concrete or fresh plaster). Saponified coatings may deteriorate, lose their adhesion, and become discoloured.
Self-Leveling While curing, self-leveling coatings will spread/even themselves out to a smooth finish, free of brush marks or similar rough spots.
Thermal Shock Thermal shock is the flexing and cracking of concrete due to rapid changes in temperature.
Tip Size The outlet size on a spray gun. Measured in inches or thousands of an inch.
Example: Super Therm® requires a tip size of 0.029-0.032 inches, or 29-32 thousands.
Two-Component Some coatings require the mixing of two chemicals (a base and a curing agent) to initiate the curing process. All epoxies and some polyurethanes are of this type.
Two-Part Some coatings require the mixing of two chemicals (a base and a curing agent) to initiate the curing process. All epoxies and some polyurethanes are of this type.
Urethanes A type of binder used in coatings. Characterized by excellent flexibility, toughness, and chemical resistance.
Ultraviolet (UV) Short wavelength light that is beyond the visible spectrum at the violet end; rays of light that are invisible to the human eye but can damage objects, thus creating the need for UV-controlled coatings for outdoor use.
Ultraviolet (UV) Controlled or Ultraviolet (UV) Protected UV controlled coatings contain components that prevent the breakdown of the coating, due to the damaging effects of UV rays.
Visual Light The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye. It has a wavelength longer than ultraviolet light and shorter than x-rays.
Visual Wavelength The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye. It has a wavelength longer than ultraviolet light and shorter than x-rays.
Water-Based or Water-Borne Coatings that use water soluble components as carriers. Are generally easy to use and clean up.
Metric / Imperial Conversion Charts
Degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit
°F = ( °C * [ 9 / 5 ] ) + 32
°C = ( °F - 32 ) * ( 5 / 9 )
Mils to Microns
1 mil = 25.4 microns
1 micron = 0.03937 mils
Square Feet to Square Meters
1 m2 = 10.76 ft2
1 ft2 = 0.3048 m2
How does heat move?
Heat moves through one of three basic methods:
Conduction is the energy transfer through solids. Different types of solids transfer heat more easily than others, with metals among the most conductive and ceramics among the least conductive. Convection is energy transfer through gasses or liquids. Currents carry heat energy through the liquid or gas. Most heat energy is transferred through convection.
Radiation is energy transferred through electromagnetic waves. Radiative energy converts to convection when it touches a solid surface.
Where is heat attracted?
As a simple rule, heat always follows cold. Just like water, heat will move through the path of least resistance until it reaches a state of equilibrium.
What is R-value?
An R-value is a measure of how well a conventional insulation resists heat transfer through conduction only. It was developed to test the insulating properties of traditional insulation and ignores heat transfer by radiation and convection. It measures only “conductive heat transfer” – how much and how fast it absorbs heat and transfers it through a specific insulation.
Is there a downside to R-value testing?
Yes. R-values are measured in a controlled environment and does not measure insulation against convective or radiational heat transfer. Real world situations can compromise the R-value of traditional insulation substantially. For example, traditional insulation can lose 35% of its R-value when as little as 1.5% humidity is introduced.
How does conventional insulation work?
Traditional insulation, including fiberglass, cellulose, polyurethane foam and other solids, contain small pockets of air that slow conductive heat transfer. They do not block or prevent the transfer of heat. Traditional insulation only slows the conductive heat transfer. However, heat will be absorbed, will load, and will transfer.
How is Super Therm® different?
Reflective Coating vs. Fiberglass vs. SUPER THERM®
Manufacturers in the past have marketed “reflective” coatings by making claims that they continuously repel heat, and have specific “R” values. The problem with such claims is that these coatings only reflect visual light or short wave radiation, and when they become dirty they stop working completely. Once these claims proved false, all similar coatings were put into the same category and deemed non-viable.
Super Therm® was designed and developed with the assistance of NASA, a fact that can be substantiated. The “ceramic compound” blends found to work the best, and are now used in Super Therm®, resulted from 18 years of testing and research. The difference between the technology of “reflective” coatings of the past and Super Therm® today, is outlined below.
Super Therm®’s has the ability to block all the different radiation waves produced by the sun. Super Therm® not only blocks these waves when first applied, but continues to block them after the coating becomes dirty, which happens to all coatings. Engineering studies performed by the US Government and independent firms, have concluded that the sun’s radiation produces heat from the following sources:
Ultra Violet (UV) which represents 3% of the heat.
Visual light or short wave radiation represents 40% of the heat.
Infrared radiation or long wave represents 57% of the heat.
Once these facts became known, the technology of blocking radiation heat was developed using laboratory testing to identify what methods and elements worked best to address these different types of heat. The ceramics used in Super Therm® were chosen from over 3,200 compounds, which were studied and tested in order to prove that they would block the different radiation waves the most effectively, producing the following results:
Super Therm® blocks 99% of UV heat
Super Therm® blocks 92% of Visual Light (short wave) heat
Super Therm® blocks 99% of Infrared (long wave) heat
This results in an average of over 96% of heat blocked!
What does this mean? In order to block heat using the old methods of insulation, such as fiberglass, rock wool, foam, etc., the heat is 100% accepted to load into the initial surface facing the sun. In order to slow down the heat transfer into the interior area, a thick material is placed on the opposite side of the initial surface to control this heat load. The ability to do this determines the “R” value of the insulation.
The “R” value is determined by an insulations capability to control heat “after the fact” – meaning that the initial surface facing the sun has absorbed 100% of the radiation heat LOAD, and then evaluating the thick layer of insulation’s ability to control the transfer of heat, thus resulting in the appropriate “R” value. Super Therm® blocks 95%+ of the initial heat load, meaning that the initial surface facing the sun only absorbs 5% of the initial heat load, not 100% as in traditional insulating technologies. This 5% value represents substantially less heat transfer than that experienced by traditional insulations, which slow down but do not stop, the transfer of heat.
The “R” value rating system was designed for thick insulation materials. For any material to actually have an “R” value, it must be a minimum of one inch (25mm) thick. We commissioned certified laboratories to do testing on heat available for transfer, and what actually makes it through the substrate to give an “R” equivalent value, and thus show its effectiveness.
“Emissivity” has recently become very important issue in heat control for engineering and architectural groups. The higher the emissivity value, the more effective the surface of the coating is in throwing off the heat that was absorbed. The “black box” testing procedure is used to determine how much of the radiation heat loading is emitted after it has been absorbed. Super Therm® absorbs only 5% of the radiation heat and then throws off 91% of this absorbed heat. This has been tested and listed by three agencies to be correct under the newly developed testing procedures.
Bombardier Engineering decided to test Super Therm® against standard wrap type insulations that have the “R” rating values, such as Fiberglass, to compare the performance of each. Three inches (75mm) of fiberglass thickness was tested to have a “K” value of 0.53. In comparison, a 250-micron thickness (10 mils or credit card thickness) of Super Therm® was tested in the lab and found to have a “K” value of 0.31. When both sides of the same wall were coated with 250-microns (10 mils) of Super Therm®, the “K” value was 0.21. The lower the “K” value, the better the “R” value.
Fiberglass has only an “R 19” value when it is a full 6 inches (150mm) thick, not compacted in any way, and when there is “0” humidity in the air. Fiberglass must be fully protected from the atmospheric elements by a metal jacket. During varied weather conditions, the metal jacket changes temperatures, which results in condensation and causes the fiberglass to become wet. This destroys all of its insulative ability and can happen as quickly as 1 month of use. Fiberglass or rock wool only works in a controlled lab, and never in the field to its reported “R” value.
Super Therm® has been consistent in blocking heat LOAD in all weather conditions over many years. In 15 years of evaluation on sections of an old roof, Super Therm® only lost 8% of it’s heat blocking ability. There is no comparison between Super Therm® and traditional insulation.
In the insulation field, it is known that air flows through walls, around windows and cracks, and can blow air through the existing insulation and prevent it from “holding” the heat. Also moisture from humidity is another factor that will load into the walls and materials, which allows heat to pass through at a faster rate, resulting in heat either being lost in winter, or gained in summer. Tyvek wrap is used throughout the building industry as a moisture and wind barrier. When the advertising material stamped on the Tyvek is read, it says it is an “air retarder” and nothing more. How many times have you passed by a building and the Tyvek is waving in the wind, which makes one wonder how much air and moisture is being blocked?
Super Therm® is a tested and proven “water barrier”, and not just a moisture barrier. It surpasses the testing that “Dry Lock” and other water barrier materials have attained. Super Therm® can breathe, but is tight enough to block air flow, while also blocking moisture load. When Super Therm® is applied to block heat load, it automatically blocks wind and moisture, thus replacing the requirement of Tyvek and other plastics or foams.
Super Therm® provides an STC 50 rating for sound reduction between walls, a “0” flame spread, Class A fire resistance, and also resists mold or mildew development. No other insulation, water resistant or flame resistant products can cover all the areas that Super Therm® provides in a normal application.
How can ceramic coatings help me?
Ceramic coatings effectively lower temperatures inside of buildings, leading to reduced energy costs and less heat stress. Super Therm® blocks heat load, moisture penetration, and air filtration.
When should I use Super Therm®?
Super Therm® can be used as replacement for traditional insulation on most substrates and in most conditions. Super Therm® is extremely effective because it reduces moisture load into a substrate and air infiltration through a wall cavity, which substantially increases its insulation value over traditional insulation. Super Therm® will prevent moisture load, seal surfaces and cracks, which reduces air flow as well as blocking heat transfer.
Coatings from Superior Products International II, Inc. provide long-term solutions to previously unsolvable problems. We pride ourselves on developing durable, versatile coatings that outperform the competition. What makes our coatings better? Read for yourself:
The SPI insulation, fire and base coatings are water-based. The corrosion coatings are solvent-based for penetration and durability. The goal is to look at how the surface will be used and then come up with the appropriate coating formula and strength to match the need.
The SPI coatings can be applied to any surface that is clean of dirt, grease, and dust. They can even be applied over existing coatings as long as they are not flaking or loose. Rust Grip® can be coated directly over surface rust and corrosion to seal the surface and is patented to encapsulate asbestos and lead based paints. If any existing coating has a gloss surface, the gloss must be sanded or light-blasted to remove the sheen. The coating does not have to be removed, just the gloss.
The SPI coatings were developed for easy application with a brush, roller, air-assisted sprayer, or airless sprayer. This allows for on location application on parts of any size and shape. The SPI coatings require dry and cure time for optimal performance.
Overspray is always a concern with liquid applied coatings. Although the material cannot be recovered, proper masking of work area will limit the chance of applying the product to unintended surfaces. Clean up for our water-based products is simple, with soap and water being more than sufficient. The solvent-based products require MEK or xylene to remove.
Durability and Longevity
The SPI coatings carry some of the longest-lasting liquid applied systems available. Super Therm® has an expected lifespan in excess of 15 years, and Rust Grip® sets to a 6700 psi surface tensile strength after 3 weeks and gives additional strength and durability to any surface it covers.
Our water-based products are environmentally friendly and do not release solvent emissions. Our solvent-based coatings are formulated to meet environmentally green standards. The SPI Coatings have been certified environmentally safe and eco-effective by MBDC LLC (Gold Certificate) and are approved by the USDA approved for use in and around food preparation areas.
Qualifies for environmental points under the LEED program. SPI is a member of the U.S. Green Building Council.